What Is Justice? And Its Types

Every civilization struggles with what constitutes fairness, justice, punishment, and order. The well-known picture of a lady wearing a blindfold and brandishing a pair of scales or, occasionally, a sword has persisted as a universal emblem. Is justice more than just a symbol?

This article discusses some primary categories of justice.

Distributive Justice

Distributive justice aims to achieve equal degrees of power across a social group, ensuring no one has an outrageous amount of wealth or power. This theory has roots in social contract theory, with philosophers like John Rawls arguing that a just society is one where the distribution of resources aims to benefit the least advantaged members. The principles of distributive justice include equality, equity, power, need, responsibility, entitlement norm, and practical norms.

Equality ensures that all people receive the same amount of pay, regardless of their degree of input. Equity focuses on outcomes based on inputs, while power sees people in positions of authority or status as more deserving. The need is distributed based on the amount needed, underpinning social ideas like the welfare state.

Responsibility involves those with the greatest wealth and power contributing more than those in need, often through progressive taxation policies. The entitlement norm suggests individuals are entitled to certain resources or benefits based on their legal or moral rights, while the practical norm maximizes overall social welfare.

Retributive Justice

The goal of retributive justice, sometimes known as criminal justice, is to punish illegal activity. Its foundation is that the perpetrator of wrongdoing should face a just penalty. This does not imply that the offender should receive the same penalty (for example, if someone strikes someone in the face, they should not receive a beating in return), but it does suggest that the punishment should be appropriate.

Retributive justice scholars frequently stress the importance of impartiality, implying that justice ought not to be subjective or predicated on retaliation. Although retributive justice is a feature of many legal systems, its efficacy could be better.

Restorative justice

While it originated in the 1970s, restorative justice draws heavily from Indigenous justice practices. In addition to assisting crime victims, restorative justice aims to educate criminals about the harm they have caused. Repair, not punishment, is the aim.

Community, accountability, cooperation, and engagement are all fundamental ideas. In addition to being applied in several criminal court cases, restorative justice techniques have also been employed in family, school, and workplace issues. In contrast to retributive justice, restorative justice emphasizes helping victims get well and what communities can do to stop crime.

Other Types of Justice

Environmental Justice

Environmental justice refers to the equitable treatment and meaningful participation of all people, regardless of race, color, national origin, or income, in terms of creating, applying, and enforcing environmental laws, rules, and policies.

You should visit at environmental justice community action san francisco ca. If you want to get involved in environmental justice community action in San Francisco, CA.

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